Foundations – What You Need to Know


OK then, you have done your site investigation, the outline planning is through and you are ready to start designing your foundations. Here's what you need to know.

There are five main types of foundation common to low-rise buildings within which category domestic housing falls. What type of ground you are building on will determine what type of foundation you will need to use.

Foundations and how they work.

· Trench Fill
· Strip Foundation
· Wide Strip Foundation
· Raft Foundation
· Piled Foundation

One Important note. When you expose your trench you need to get building control, NHBC or an independent structural engineer to inspect your ground prior to pouring your foundations. Forgetting to do this could mean digging up your foundations as a worst case, especially if the ground is not suitable for the type of foundation you intend to pour.

Stay safe get your inspections done.

Trench Fill.

Trench fill refers to a technique used to fill up deep foundations trenches. What happens is this, you go to site and dig out for your foundations, but you end up about 1600 or perhaps even 2000mm below ground level. Well obviously you do not want to fill all of that depth with good strong foundation concrete, so you order a weak concrete mix from your ready mix company and pour that into the trench until you reach the depth at which you propose to lay your foundation concrete.The trench fill needs to be only as strong as a good supporting soil, to provide a suitable base for the strip foundation.

Strip Foundation.

A strip foundation is the simplest form of house foundation. It consists of a Gen 1 grade concrete laid to a width of 650m wide and usually to a depth of 350mm, with reinforced steel to either top or bottom of the foundation or in some cases both. It is preferable to have an engineer design the foundation for you, and provide you with dimensions prior to starting. Strip foundations are being replaced with wide strip foundations and are now relegated to supporting internal walls within the dwelling.

Wide Strip Foundations.

Wide strip foundations are similar to ordinary strip foundations except that they are wider. They are made wider in order to spread the load over more area of ​​soil. The wide strip foundation is usually used in poorer bearing soil conditions.Wide strip foundations are usually 1 m wide x 450 mm deep, with reinforced steel to either top or bottom of the foundation or in some cases both, although an engineer can specify other dimensions depending on ground conditions and the load being imposed onto the foundations.

Raft Foundations.

Basically this is a slab of concrete laid over the base of the house with reinforced steel supporting the concrete. While the raft foundation is still used it is slowly going out of fashion, as there is a tendency for the raft to tilt in very poor soil conditions.

Piled Foundations.

As good quality sites become scarce, the poor weak soils that previously had been unexploited are now being built on. Weak or fluid soils or soils that contain a large proportion of compressible elements are prime candidates for piling.A pile is simply a square length of concrete with four reinforced steel bars running through it.

The pile is normally 350mm square depending on engineers specs and can be anything in length from 4m to 12m.The engineer specifies how many piles are required to support the house and where they need to be placed. This is normally at junctions and intersections within the house.Simple piles are driven into the ground using a ram. They are pounded down until they refuse. That is they will not go down any further.

Once all the piles are driven in the tops are cut off leaving only enough to steel exposed to tie into the beams. Next a mud-mat or 50mm layer of concrete is laid over the site. Then the line of the house is marked out as well as all internal load-bearing walls. Then a small retaining wall is built to either side of the piles in order to form a trench within which the foundations can be poured.

Once the block work has been completed, reinforced steel is placed into the area where the concrete will be poured and as per engineers designs is laid and tied to form a steel cage that forms the basis for the foundations. These are tied into the top of the piles. Once the steel has been laid, fitted and tied the concrete is then poured in the same manner as you would pour a strip or wide strip foundation.The concrete is agitated using a poker in order to get all excess air bubbles out of the foundation.

All you have to do now is wait until the concrete hardens and you can start building your house. Normally with piled foundations you use pre-stressed slabbed floors. This is a very safe and fast method of building.


Source by Ed Gordon

The Three Basic Types of Home Foundations


There are three basic types of foundations in use today in the construction of a home.

Slab Foundations

A slab foundation is a foundation built directly on the soil with no basement or crawl space. Slab foundations are common in areas where soil conditions are not suitable for a basement, and are the most common foundation found in warmer areas such as Florida, Arizona, California and Texas, or anywhere where the depth between the soil and stable underlying rock is very shallow. Slabs are the quickest and cheapest foundation because they require less labor, skill and materials cost. They consist of a concrete slab that is typically 6 to 8 inches thick. Embedded within the slab is a grid of supporting ribbed metal rods known as "rebar." Even in locations where basements are prevalent, slab foundations are typically laid to serve as the base for structures like garages, pole barns, and sheds. Slabs are the least expensive of the three main foundation types but provide no storage or utility space, as the home actually sits directly on a large platform of solid concrete. Slabs have the disadvantage of being difficult and expensive to repair when they settle and crack, and plumbing lines that protrude from the soil upward through the concrete can also be expensive to repair. In areas where the underlying soil is thick or prone to excessive expansion and contraction, cables are embedded which can be tightened to provide better horizontal support and minimize the width of cracks.

Crawl Space (Pier and Beam) Foundations

A pier and beam foundation consists of either vertical wood or concrete columns (piers) that support beams or floor joists above the ground. The areas between the soil and the bottom of the house floor is known as the crawl space. These foundations are built either at ground level or over a shallow excavation that varies in depth, but is commonly about 36 to 40 inches deep. The best crawl space foundations have a load-bearing concrete perimeter wall and concrete or steel piers, both having footings below the freeze line of the soil, along with a good barrier over the soil to keep moisture under control. Less expensive versions have no load-bearing perimeter walls, piers with shallow footings, and no moisture barrier at all over the soil. Crawl spaces that enclosed by a wall or by skirting must have vents on every side to allow air to circulate and help keep the soil dry under the home. These vents must be configured to prevent the entry of rodents and snakes. Crawl space foundations are most often used in areas where there is heavy clay content in the soil that can severely damage (crack) slab foundations, or in waterfront or flood prone building sites where the necessary floor height to prevent water penetration of the living space must be higher than a slab can normally provide. The primary advantages of crawl space foundations are that plumbing lines are readily accessible for repairs, and foundation settlement problems are easier and less expensive to correct than with slab foundations. A primary disadvantage occurs when these foundations are not properly maintained or are constructed without adequate ventilation, allowing water or pests to cause damage. Crawl space foundations without adequate insulation applied to the bottom of the house floor can be very energy inefficient in a cold climate.

Basement Foundations

A basement is a type of foundation which includes an accessible space between the soil and the bottom of the first floor of a home. This foundation provides living space below the home, below the ground elevation. It is basically a slab foundation with walls and a floor. Basements are most often built in cold weather climates such as the Northeast, Midwest and Rocky Mountains, and in places where the cost of excavation is not prohibitive. Basements start with a hole approximately 8 feet deep, however, some homeowners will opt for a 9 or 10 foot deep basement wall to increase height and volume of useable space. The floor and walls are built, then the house itself is built over that. Basement foundations have the advantage of providing useful space for utilities, mechanicals systems, and storage not available in the previous two types of foundations. The primary disadvantage of basements is that because they are mostly below ground level, they are vulnerable to leakage, mold formation, and flooding. Basements in wet climates must always have a working drain and pump in the floor to combat flooding.


Source by Harry E Davis

Steel Grillages, a Foundation Technique Used to Support Structures


A Steel grillage is a foundation technique that is often used to support towers, gantries, signs, overhead line electrification (OLE) masts and similar structures. Depending on the size and weight of the structure being supported, a traditional foundation of this type (sometimes called a floating foundation) is a large box-like structure, not unlike the mesh cages used to reinforce concrete structures.

A steel grillage is placed on several screwpiles – typically between four and eight depending on the overlying structure. Using this system, construction time has been reduced by over half the time; with one lighting column being able to be installed in under an hour. It is fast to install and is a foundation formed with better technology and innovative designs. This technology can be applied to many structures that have a high turning moment and that need to been installed quickly and cost-effectively.

How Grillages work

Where reinforcement is usually created by surrounding the structure with a concrete base, here, a steel grillage (which is a rigid construction that's placed at sufficient depth below ground that the weight of soil removed to input the grillage equals it in weight) can be used in replacement.

Increasingly, for structures such as road signs or railway gantries, grillages have been designed to consist of one or more steel beams (an interface) mounted on underlying helical piles to give extra support. The fast installation and the fact that the grillage is fabricated off-site make this a very suitable yet versatile foundation solution.

Advantages and benefits

Steel grillages have many benefits to contractors, some of these include –

  • Speed ​​of installation – using a grillage often permits valuable time savings.
  • Convenience – avoidance of poured concrete saves time and simplifies installation.
  • Reduced costs – through minimal disruption of transport infrastructure.
  • Versatility – the technology suits many different applications.


Source by Neil Tufano

Bi-Level Foundation Repair


, the homeowner, to find out whether there are grounds for damage is worse news is anyone can give. This kind of damage to the home of one the most expensive type of repair you can go through. It is also one that will have no other choice but to go out and hire a professional contractor who specializes in foundation repair.

Potential Cost:

The cost of repair depends on the extent of the damage to the foundation, based on the location of the damage and the type of material that is needed to solve the problem. The cost can be $ 800 or as high as $ 30,000 to fix the problem. First estimates of at least three different operators is needed to be able to assess how much will be very cost-effective. However, not only the cost of the work to be carried out when choosing a contractor will pick up. You should also consider what type of materials they will use, and reputation among the locals. If they use higher quality materials and a very good feedback ratings from previous clients, you can go to the entrepreneur.

Questions Bi-Level Foundations:

Foundations are on two levels tend to carry heavier loads than others. That’s why a pity that these funds are usually more severe. The other thing is that the water damage caused by these types of funds are usually obvious. This is because the water is easy to get into the basement area that is because of the seals, and the foundation itself accepted.

as soon as it detects water leaks in the basement of the structure was checked immediately possible foundation damage. Early detection of potentially save thousands of dollars due to the fact that since the injury is not so serious, though, you’ll be able to easily solve the problem.


Source by Ken Marlborough

Foundation Repair – Bottle Jacks bad!


, many people Foundation repair is a necessary evil if those settling or heaving problems in their own home. Most are not up to speed on the technical aspects of structural repair their homes basement or foundation, so look in the phone book or go online and look for a repair experts in their fields. A little knowledge and research foundations are selected on the basis of price or convenience repair contractor. This is where the problems start, lack of knowledge is the enemy of quality workmanship.

Quality foundation repair contractors have years of experience and a variety of quality products and employees in so that you can apply the best homes unique situation. The bad contractors base their business price and convenience. They are able to install the pier systems very quickly and cheaply, because they adapt to the situation to their foundation repair solution and equipment. They do not consider the true factors that are structurally stabilizing a basement or foundation.

These are real factors are:

Structural Weight

The structural elevations

structural currents Foundation

Pier system capacity

synchronized lifting

soil properties

Drainage and water runoff

one of the easiest methods that if you get a quality foundation repair inquire about the equipment used in the repair. There are many cheap, fly-by-night operators a simple bottle jacks (car jack) to drive the pier stretches into the soil. They then use these same car jack in an attempt to stabilize the domestic. This throws up a red flag for all homeowners. If the contractor does not spend money on quality engineer approved equipment you probably will not improve the quality of a home, an approved engineer.

While relatively simple way to filter out bad installation contractors, it is a good rule of thumb is to narrow down the choices. Simply put, bottle jacks are great for temporary assistance for cars, trailers and beams if used in foundation repairs can cause damage to the housing fund. Bottle jacks no pressure gauge to control the pressure applied to a fund is set only a rough mechanical device. Very small head lifting cylinder or a saddle which is pressed onto the undercoat, when the mechanical pump is depressed. This greatly increases the stress is a cause foundation cracks and possible breaks in the skirting or wall. Increasing the square centimeter of the interface significantly reduces the power used by the Foundation. Most systems do this by using the pier foundation of quality steel profiles over a large area of ​​the foundations that rest is connected to a dedicated hydraulic cylinder.

Another shortcoming is missing a pressure gauge bottle jacks. This now means that the basis for measuring the force exerted no way of knowing if the foundation is able to maintain this level. High quality structural repair systems and a gauge to measure the valve and limiting of the hydraulic forces home. When you lift the structure, multiple heavy duty hydraulic cylinders and valves banks serve a full sync with lift. Thus, sponsored by the foundation and lifted smoothly, do not apply unequal forces of the structure.

It should be obvious now why engineers and quality foundation repair contractors are not implemented bottle jacks to repair the flat. So when you start a research foundation repair contractor to do with a simple filter and narrow down the choices from there.


Source by Jeff Tully

Piering – The solution for error Foundation


Foundation mistake can be dangerous if you do not solve the problem. The house might actually become crooked. Unfortunately, the foundation error signals do not occur until the problem can become serious. These signs included cracked walls, uneven floors, cracked tiles and windows not closing right. If you notice any of these in your house, it would be wise to call a professional to come in and do a test to find out for sure if there is any foundation failure.

This is caused by one thing. Most often or not the soil, laid the foundation of the culprit. In general, soils, during which the foundation, whose problems include clay. After the clay is moist, not dry often the same across the board, and this can lead to the problem of a failure. The factors that contribute to ground water much, the weather, poor drainage, pluming leakage, and even roots from trees upset the groundwork for the foundation.

The solution is not based on something called Piering or supporter. Piering is the process of handling and stabilizing the foundation. There are generally two styles used for the steel pillars. Both are acceptable, although each one designed for a particular fund. Talk to your contractor to find out which is the best feeling in the pier house.

First, there is a resistance pillars, which are hydraulically pressed straight down the ground to counterbalance the weight of the structure. These piers go down until it reaches a layer of soil, which is pretty hard to support it. They work best in situations where the structure should be increased to a very high load austerity demands.

Next is a helical piers, which are similar to the soil hydraulic bolt to the way a corkscrew or drilling operations. These pillars are flights that you can pull off the pier into the ground. As resistance piers helical piers down to stop once they reached the ground, it is quite difficult to support it. They can not be pushed or pulled out. Helical piers of the most useful slope or hillside, how to twist it into the ground.

helical piers can come as pre-construction helical piers. They are installed where they can be questioned in some soils. Some soils may not be enough to carry the load of the structure, and this is where pre-construction piers could use. They help prevent future error basis.

After the piering installed the contractor should be given a detailed report showing the exact location of the piers and installed explains the hydraulic measurements. Keep this report to the relevant records.

vary depending on the price rise to what type piers. The most commonly used in either steel or steel piers resistance helical piers. The price also depends on how deep should go down to the piers. The deeper the depth the more money it will cost. Finally, you must look at labor costs. It does not work where you want to be cheap solution. Yes, this can be an expensive task, but think the price if the house is destroyed based on a mistake.


Source by Hal Lewis

Foundation cracks in the wall, Cause, Effect and Solution


There are no perfect churches and that includes the base. Whether a new home, or one that is centuries old foundations of the house to crack. Houses shift and settle after construction. Houses will be no cracks or structural components of cosmetic finishes. Most of these cracks have no structural significance. The common types include cracks in the foundation walls;

vertical (or near vertical) cracks; Just because the wall is cracked does not mean that you can not or corrective action is required. If the crack is narrow (1/8 inch or less), close to vertical, there is no lateral distance from the adjacent parts of the wall and there is no leakage of water into the crack, no measures are generally not necessary. This is a shrinkage cracks and then drain water generated by the moisture evaporates causing the wall cavities of walls to shrink. This type of cracking is controlled by, or minimize, but not eliminate, the horizontal rebar, which helps distribute the tensions on the wall. If horizontal steel is present, it is more likely that, instead of a few very small cracks in one or two much larger cracks. Another method of limiting shrinkage crack to control the amount of water used in the concrete mix.

reentrant cracks; When a particular member has a sharp angle, there is a concentration of stress. This is almost always a crack buy-called crack that emanates from the inner corner. It can be vertical, horizontal or diagonal when it leaves the corner. This phenomenon exists in almost all materials. Round holes to dissipate stress, but this is not very practical concrete wall construction. The typical remedy to reduce this kind of crack rebar placement in the corners. This will not eliminate these cracks, but they are not tight and controlled.

Horizontal cracks; Horizontal cracks require more thorough examination. Most residential foundation walls are designed to span the bottom or floor slab in contact with the floor structure above. An 8-inch concrete wall in normal soil conditions generally strong enough to withstand the forces exerted on the wall is not vertical reinforcement. The exceptions are areas with high groundwater conditions or expansive soils. If there is vertical reinforcement in the wall, a horizontal crack is probably not a cause for concern. An expert consultations should be continued if the horizontal cracks appear to assess whether there is a structural risk.

These cracks typically originate from one or more of the following;
footing during the first soil settlement that downward movement of the foot and the change of most of the newly built homes.

2. Change the local groundwater, when a new home is built. Specifically, under the soil the home is withered; The resulting soil shrinkage caused by skirting the small town, which can lead to hairline cracks in the foundation walls.

3. Without a new home with the furniture and effects, does not impose a significant load on the foundation. After all the furniture and equipment is moved, the weight borne by the Foundation, and the structure in general is growing and will cause some deviation (or movement) of structural elements throughout. This increased load can cause hairline cracks in the foundation.

4. shrinkage. While poured concrete hardens and dries, it decreases. The main factors which influence the drying shrinkage of the total water content of the concrete. As the water content increases in the cast concrete, the amount of shrinkage increases. A significant increase in the sand content decreased substantially due to the size of the coarse aggregate used to cast concrete shrinkage increase total water content increases and coarse aggregate small internal resistance for less shrinkage.

5. thermal expansion and contraction of concrete. cast concrete under high daytime temperature szerződjenek cools during the night, it can be sufficient to cause cracking when the concrete restrained.

6. restraint; The restriction of freedom of movement following the fresh and hardened concrete related marketing (pouring of concrete) shuttering or inside a closed space otherwise would discourage internal or external, but can operate in one or more directions.

7. subsoil settlement or movement. The ground finish the job or the weight of the burden imposed on them, or shrinkage or movement of the underlying support.

Most of foundation cracks are minor and insignificant; they are common poured concrete and block foundations. Structural cracks (horizontal) to residential foundations are usually the result of settlement and / or horizontal loads. They may be the result of hydrostatic pressure in addition to the use of heavy equipment or the foundation. The possible involvement of cracks in the foundation of the moisture ingress of moisture, which can damage the finished wall coverings, flooring and furniture.

Water is leaking through a crack in the foundation, if you have enough hydrostatic pressure forces the water through the crack. When installing the waterproofing system in the construction of the basement does not leak when there is a large crack. Keep in mind that the waterproofing is not the same as anti-moisture insulation. After installing an external wall insulation system has been backfilled be cost prohibitive. The best solution is to use an epoxy-injection system. It adheres to the side of the crack, and actually strengthens the wall. These systems can be DIY but it is highly recommended to apply for a specialist.

If you take anything away from this article … this. Every crack foundations, the foundation, the Foundation and most of these cracks are insignificant and non-structural consequences. If you have a concern about the size and type of fracture call for service to evaluate.


Source by Rick Deckert

Foundation Repair Training


most complicated and costly foundation repair your home you will ever need of repair. This is the reason that many people in the school to provide training specific to specifically become a foundation repair contractor. This type of course is very difficult and costly, but the rewards that come with finishing a huge training.

What you need to learn:

The most important skill to learn in these courses, how to spot the damage. You need to be taught that it is not damaged, and the proper techniques on how to remedy the situation.

Foundation damage is very difficult to detect due to the fact that the real damage is usually hidden from the naked eye untrained professionals. You will need specially trained to distinguish from ordinary cracks in the concrete or brick foundations serious damage.

Another thing you need to learn how to determine the appropriate repair methods. There are many different ways to fix the foundations of damage, it all depends on what type of injury in the event, the location of the damage, and the strength of the surrounding soil around the house. As a skilled entrepreneur, you need to have all of these factors and develop a solution to the problem. This is very important due to the fact that the bad repair method does nothing to fix the situation for the homeowner, and cause them unnecessary aggravation.


In some places, contractors to the basics of working need to pass the test and get a license in the state, while other areas will only need a permit if the repairs will cost more than $ 30,000. However, some states do not regulate contractors to work on the basics. You do not need a license in order to work on the foundations of these places.


Source by Ken Marlborough

Foundation Repair


The main function of the foundation of a home at the weight of a structure of the underlying soil and rocks. One factor that creates the need for foundation repair improper foundation settling. Foundation devalue settlement structures, and make them safe. Building on swelling clay, printing or improperly contracted with fill soil and improper maintenance around foundations and some of the main reasons for the inadequate foundation settling. Another reason for the improper foundation settlement is not or unsuspected field of underground construction of airbags. These caves, which is the foundation of integrity that risk.

Common symptoms of foundation structures requiring repairs in accordance with bulging or cracked walls and doors that do not lock. Building on expansive soils is the main culprit of foundation settlement. If only part of the foundation settles or heaves, cracks in the foundation. The external warning signs of improper floor planning the shooting of walls, displaced moldings, cracked bricks and foundation and separation around doors and windows in the walls. Indoor improper floor settling warning signs of cracks in the earth, the sheet rock and sliding doors and windows.

There are many possibilities for foundation repair. Cement, stone, wood or steel are widely used techniques in the past. They would be forced into the ground in a bid to save the power of these funds. However, this type of repair work has been known to have been in vain. The two most successful way to improve the foundation slab jacking and Piering method. Piering is also known as a hydraulic lift.

Slab jacking is a process that under mortar slab or radiation. This produces a lifting force and restore the said timber or plate is almost the original height and adds to its strength. Care should be taken that the amount of sand to be perfect, while adding mortar.

During Piering, steel posts driven through unstable soil. Hydraulic jacks stabilize concrete which has weakened the changes taking place in the underlying soil. Steel beams used in Piering method because a high compressive strength concrete. Although Piers able to transfer rebar without the help of a huge falling loads, steel is used for the prevention of piers pier, pulled apart, or shear the expansive soils. The repairs would turn 21-30 days, however, this time frame can vary depending on soil conditions and weather delays.


Source by Ken Marlborough

Concrete and Foundation Requirements for Steel Building Kits


Steel building kits are becoming very popular option with regard to new building construction. In general, you can build a steel building kit is much faster and much cheaper than a traditional wood frame building. They are virtually maintenance-free, and smaller buildings, you do not always need to build an entrepreneur.

One detail that will have to be worked out before you build, and before you buy, we will be out of the building to be erected? Bare dirt? Concrete? Concrete foundations will increase the total cost of the project, but you may need a larger building or a structure, which will be permanent. The primary types of steel structures, which are the foundations dirt parking lot. But, depending on the local requirements, steel buildings, built on bare ground. The following information is an illustration of some details of the ground foundations and concrete foundations.

You will see that steel buildings can be fixed on the ground (without concrete), or concrete sets. Before going into details, if an area that is a frost line, you will be in about 12 “to frost line the perimeter footings. This depth is applied to the ground fixing is required in colder areas.

described below specific applications do not take into account the frost line with the requirements

ground mount (no concrete pad).


  • When assembling a steel building kit to the ground, you will need to dig a post hole approximately 10 “in diameter and 30” deep every five feet or all four feet, depending on the purchase of a 5 ‘on-center system or a four “on-center system.
  • Assemble base rails ** and they Instead, mark where the holes should be dug. (16-D nail poked into the ground in the pre-drilled holes does the foot rails, is exactly that.)
  • Then use post-hole digger or auger and drill holes 30 “deep. Clean the holes.
  • you can now set up in accordance with steel kit foot rails instructions and drop to the ground anchor is pre-drilled holes. Use a 2500psi concrete (premixed bags or mix your own), and a shovel, fill the holes.
  • I have to wait at least seven days adjusted to the concrete before the assembly of the steel building

    concrete Mount.

    1. Size plate. it should be that slab 4 “wider than the width of the steel building and 6” long. it’s not broken, the edge of the disk when installing the concrete anchor dowels to floor.
    2. Concrete floor: The floor should be a minimum of 4 “thick. Stay 6 “thick if you intend to large vehicles such as trucks or larger RVs to be parked on it. The concrete must be at least 2500 psi concrete reinforcement fiberglass mesh added item # 3 rebar plant or 24” centers. You should also consider going for a 4000psi concrete mixture together with the two extra inches of concrete, if you wish to more than a normal amount of weight.
    3. absolutely saw cut expansion joints within a reasonable period of time after the pour is completed, the expansion joints or trowel, while the finish is going on.

    Footing requirements: (International Building Code in 2000 or “IBC 2000” requirements)

    However pour on the floor, you’re going to pour the footings district. This so-called monolithic pour or monolithic slab. Perimeter footings must be 12 “deep (even the four” as part of floor 12 “) and 16” wide. It will be the bases of the two # 4 rebar length of the upper and lower continuous run around the entire area.

    Our local (Tempe, Arizona), the footings would cost about $ 11.50 per lineal (running) foot.

    That’s it. If the building department is still the UBC 1997 (Uniform Building Code), which for many of them, the funds can only be 12 “wide. It should hit the $ 1.00 lineal foot on such funds requirements for price estimate. For more information, reinforced concrete buildings, please contact Absolute steel & storage then the Spirit. several pages of technical information to help there

    See pictures = ** putting together the foot rails here Assemble base rails


    Source by Matt Fay